fosses nasales

Définition :

Les fosses nasales sont au nombre de 2, creusées dans le massif facial.

Elles sont parallèles et se dirigent d'avant en arrière.

Leurs orifices antérieurs sont les narines.

Leurs orifices postérieurs s'appellent les choanes, qui s'ouvrent sur le pharynx

I - LA PAROI OSSEUSE DES FOSSES NASALES :

La paroi osseuse des fosses nasales est formée en avant par les os propres du nez et l'épine nasale du frontal, puis la lame criblée de l'éthmoïde d'où émergent les cellules de l'olfaction.

La paroi inférieure correspond à la face supérieure du palais dur.

La paroi interne, ou cloison des fosses nasales, est formée par le vomer et la lame perpendiculaire de l'éthmoïde.

La paroi externe est composée par une partie du maxillaire supérieur, de l'unguis et de l'éthmoïde.

De la paroi externe des fosses nasales saillent des os appelés cornets, qui délimitent des espaces appelés méats.

Sur cette paroi externe, on a le cornet inférieur, qui est un os distinct et les cornets supérieurs moyens, qui sont des dépendances de l'éthmoïde.

On distingue 3 méats :

. le méat supérieur,

. le méat moyen,

. le méat inférieur où aboutit le canal lacrymo-nasal.

II - LA PAROI MUQUEUSE DES FOSSES NASALES :

La muqueuse des fosses nasales est aussi appelée muqueuse pituitaire.

Elle se poursuit dans la saillie du nez jusqu'aux narines.

A l'intérieur de chaque fosse nasale, la muqueuse tapisse les surfaces osseuses et cartilagineuses, y compris la lame criblée de l'éthmoïde.

Elle pénètre également dans le sinus frontal, maxillaire et sphénoïdal.

Elle comprend 2 parties :

a) Une partie supérieure :

La muqueuse olfactive où se trouvent les cellules d'origine du nerf olfactif.

b) Une partie inférieure :

Elle correspond à la muqueuse respiratoire richement vascularisée et qui possède des cellules à mucus et à cils.

Ceux-ci nettoient et humidifient les fosses nasales.

III - LES SINUS DE LA FACE :

Les sinus constituent un ensemble de cavités pneumatiques dérivées des fosses nasales.

Les fosses nasales sont creusées à la périphérie des cavités orbitaires.

Les sinus sont tous en communication avec les fosses nasales. Ils réchauffent l'air inspiré.

A - LES SINUS MAXILLAIRES :

Ils sont placés au-dessous des cavités orbitaires.

Le plancher des sinus maxillaires est séparé des racines des molaires et des prémolaires par une lame osseuse extrêmement mince.

B - LES SINUS FRONTAUX :

Ils sont situés au-dessus du toit orbitaire.

C - LES SINUS ETHMOÏDAUX : 

Ils sont situés dans les parties hautes des fosses nasales et de l'orbite.

D - LES SINUS SPHÉNOÏDAUX :

Ils sont situés en haut et en arrière des fosses nasales.

Le toit du sinus sphénoïdal constitue la selle turcique de la base du crâne, emplacement de l'hypophyse.

Application clinique :

Une sinusite est une inflammation des muqueuses causée par une réaction allergique ou une infection.

On associe aux antibiotiques des anti-inflammatoires

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