L'hygiène de vie de la femme enceinte

L'hygiène de vie de la femme enceinte

Alimentation

Pendant la grossesse l'alimentation de la mère doit s'adapter à ses besoins personnels et à ceux du foetus.
Elle doit être:

  • Equilibrée.
  • Variée
La femme ne doit pas suivre de régime sans avis médical, ni non plus "manger pour deux".
  • Ne pas sauter de repas.
  • Répartir la ration calorique en "petits repas" plus faciles à digérer.
  • Prendre son temps et manger dans le calme.
  • Cuisiner avec peu de matières grasses pour la cuisson.
  • Bien laver les fruits et légumes.
  • Eviter les crustacés crus (hépatite A).
  • Faire attention aux aliments qui peuvent transmettent la listériose (fromage au lait cru).
  • Surveiller son poids (normalement la prise pondérale pendant la grossesse est d'environ 12 Kg selon la morphologie).
  • Si on constate une prise de poids importante il y a un risque de H.T.A, de troubles veineux. Au contraire si la prise de poids est < à la normale on peut craindre une menace d'accouchement prématuré.

Les apports caloriques

Au premier trimestre, sur la base de 2000 calories/jour on peut rajouter 100 cal.Au deuxième et troisième trimestre, on peut consommer entre 2250 et 2400 cal/jour.


Les protides

Ils ont une importance +++ pour le développement du foetus, on considère nécessaire l'augmentation de +10 à +15g/jour la ration protidique sur la base d'un régime équilibré. Dans 100 grammes de viande on compte de 18 à 20g de protides, ce qui équivaut à deux oeufs ou 4 yaourts.Il est bon qu'ils soient apportés pour moitié d'origine végétale et pour moitié d'origine animale.

Les glucides

Pendant la grossesse, on recommande l'augmentation de la ration journalière de +25 à +40g/jour à consommer de préférence dans les sucres lents.

Les lipides

Augmentation de +10 à +15g/jour, ils ont une importance +++ dans le développement des cellules nerveuses du foetus. Attention par contre à éviter les lipides issus des graisses de charcuterie ou de cuisson.

Le calcium

Importance +++ dans la constitution du squelette et des dents (produits laitiers +++).
On considère qu'il est nécessaire de consommer 1g/jour de calcium.
On le trouve dans :
1 bol de lait de 250 ml ==> 300 mg
2 yaourts ==> 300 mg
300 g de fromage blanc ==> 300 mg

Le fer (Fe)

Rôle d'importance +++ dans la formation des globules rouges du sang du foetus. On le trouve dans les épinards mais surtout dans les légumes secs, le foie, le poisson et les oeufs. Parfois le médecin peut prescrire un apport ferrique par voie médicamenteuse et sur prescription médicale.


Les vitamines et les acides

Dénomination

Action

Aliment(s) à consommer

Vitamine D

Participe à l'absorption du Ca et du phosphore.

Foie de poisson et de boucherie.

Vitamine C

Idem

Légumes et fruits.

Vitamine A

Idem

Beurre et produits laitiers

Acide folique

Intervient dans la synthèse de tous les tissus.

Epinards, cresson, betterave, banane, orange.



Les boissons

L'eau, pendant la grossesse il faut boire beaucoup (1,5 à 2,5 litres/jour) de manière à éviter les infections urinaires et la constipation. On peut également boire des jus de fruits ou de légumes frais. Eviter par contre les alcools, excitants (café et thé), sodas. D'une manière générale préférer les fibres (légumes) pour éviter la constipation. Eviter le tabac et les atmosphères enfumées. Proscrire formellement l'automédication.

L'habillement

Porter

Des vêtements amples. Soutien gorge de grossesse adapté au volume des seins.

Eviter

Les vêtements qui compriment ou qui entraînent des strictions des membres.Les talons trop hauts.Les gaines ou ceintures de grossesse.

Hygiene corporelle

Il faut une hygiène dentaire +++. Utiliser du dentifrice fluoré et voir pour apport de fluor pour la mère (sur prescription médicale). Pendant la grossesse on voit souvent des caries et des gingivites.Respecter une hygiène de la peau (la douche est meilleur que le bain, et si l'on prend des bains attention à l'eau trop chaude et à ne pas y rester trop longtemps).

La toilette vulvaire

Elle doit être simple sans injection vaginale. En cas leucorrhées ou de pertes nauséabondes consulter immédiatement.

Les seins

A partir du deuxième trimestre il faut commencer à préparer le sein à l'allaitement en massant le mamelon.

Le soleil

Une petite exposition est bénéfique pour la vitamine D, mais attention au masque de grossesse.

Les vergetures

Elles apparaissent à partir du sixième mois de grossesse et sont dues à la perte d'élasticité de la peau.

Le sport

On peut pratiquer la natation ou la marche, mais éviter les sports violents. Attention dans les transports en commun ou sur les grands trajets (préférer le train à la voiture).L'avion n'est pas proscrit en cas de grossesse.La femme enceinte doit se reposer +++ et éviter les fatigues inutiles.Sur le plan psychologique, les bouleversements hormonaux induisent des sautes d'humeurs (alternances d'euphorie et de dépression).

La sexualite

Les rapports restent possibles pendant la grossesse sauf si contre indication médicale.

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